Developing a Shot List
Step 1: Do Not Edit
The first thing to know when making a shot list is that you do not want to be editing your movie as you are shooting it. So, you would be seeing a close up on Jill when she speaks, close up of Jack as he says his line, then back to close up on Jill. Do not write this as 3 shots. This is 2 shots: a close up of Jill and a close up of Jack.
Step 2: Frame Sizes
Frame size is measured by how much of a person is showing in the frame. You should specify whether these shots are singles (only one person), 2-shots, etc. Note that close up does not mean single. Keep these definitions in mind to create the most accurate shot list.
Step 3: Angles
You will also need to specify what kind of angle you have your camera shooting the subject from. Not all of your shots will be straight on or frontal. Some will be profile shots meaning from the side. You may also want to have a shot looking down on the character, which you would note as high-angle. Predictably, low-angle shots come from below. During coverage, you may want to see a piece of the character to which your subject is speaking. This is a dirty shot or an over the shoulder (OTS).
Step 4: Movement
In some cases, you will have a dolly or zoom planned. For this you should describe the frame at the beginning and the shot and then the frame at the end. If there are any key frames in between, then you can describe this as well. Make sure it is clear that this is all one shot.
One Man's Model - Douglas Horn
"A good shooting plan shows the bare essentials. It’s a top-down view, so the circles are people’s heads. Lines show direction. Either there’s a line out of the end of the circle to represent a nose and show the direction the person is facing, or there’s a line across the circle, which represents the brow—again to show the direction of the face. Circles usually have an initial of the character’s name to indicate who’s who.
Arrows show motion. Triangles are cameras and the angle of the triangle roughly indicates the lens’s field of view. So narrow little acute-angle triangles are long lenses and fat triangles are wides. If you were to extend the lines of each angle, they should indicate what is in the shot. I find this really useful when I know the rough dimensions of a location because I know what angles I want and where to put them. It’s very quick once you get to know the system and you can always sketch out some super-quick storyboard frames based on what’s shown in the background according to the field-of-view lines. The letter inside each camera indicates what shot it is. A number by it indicates what part of the shot it is in a moving shot like a track or dolly." - Douglas Horn
Sample Shot Lists
Download Simple Shot List Template, Here: https://drive.google.com/previewtemplate?id=0AsxNmr55SrA_dF9RWUFfTGhublI0ODBZNmNPSU9YbUE&ddrp=1#
When you make a commercial, you're up against a specific time clock. A commercial cannot be 34 seconds, or 26 seconds, or 47 seconds. When broadcast board operators are mapping out their hours they rely on commercials being either 30 or 60 seconds in length.
Broadcast Time clock
Imagine doing math for each commercial break, trying to stack an hour guessing, "I've got one that's 33 seconds, 45 seconds, 68 seconds, 23 seconds, 17 seconds. How much time do I have left?" Nope. Instead, the system counts on having "60 seconds, 60 seconds, 30 seconds, 30 seconds, and a 10 second network or local bumper."
NFL Game Example
Live Sports Commercial Breaks
The network television coordinator with orange sleeves will lower his arm when the commercial is over.
During each half of a network-televised game, there are ten prescribed commercial breaks following the official kickoff. Two are firmly scheduled, and eight others are worked in during breaks in the play.
Pre-scheduled commercial breaks:
Other instances used for commercial breaks (eight total required per half):
Two commercial breaks during the typical 12-minute halftime period are considered separate.
Networks are more apt to front-load their commercials in the first and third quarters, to prevent an overrun in the second and fourth quarters respectively. However, in the event that at least one early-window game is running long (after 4:25 p.m. ET) on the doubleheader network, the network will normally hold its commercials for the late window until all audiences have joined the late games, to ensure maximum coverage for its advertisers. In the rare event that the first quarter of a late game ends before all early games on that network have ended, the network may either take a break consisting entirely of network promos / PSAs, or not take a break at all during the between-quarters timeout, and those commercials are rescheduled for later in the game.
If a team calls a timeout and the network decides to use it for a commercial break, a representative from the broadcast crew stationed on the sidelines wearing orange sleeves makes a crossing motion with his hands to alert the officials. The referee declares it a "two-minute timeout."
Once a broadcast has fulfilled the 8 "random" breaks, game stoppages are no longer needed for commercials. The orange sleeve will hold his hands down in a twirl motion to alert the officials. If a team calls a timeout, the referee will declare it a "30-second timeout." Once any timeout in a half is declared a 30-second timeout, all remaining timeouts will be of the same duration.
Since the 10 total commercial breaks for the second half are to be finished prior to the end of regulation, commercial breaks are rarely needed in overtime situations, apart from a break immediately after the end of regulation. Commercials for these purposes are sometimes pre-sold on an if-needed basis (such as the specialized AIG "overtime" ads often seen during the early 2000s).
In many cases, overtime periods are conducted without any commercials. By definition, a game that has entered overtime is tied, and so the game is still undecided, thus increasing the appeal of the given game. This also allows the extended broadcast to finish in a timely manner. In cases of long overtime periods, networks have been known to have a commercial break during a lengthy injury time out. During postseason play, the very rare instances of double overtime will feature a commercial between periods.
***Resource quoted from Website
Commercials online are fitting the same model; 30 to 60 seconds. However, many ads allow you to click away after you've seen the pop up, or if you've watched the first six seconds of an ad. However, many require that you sit through the full 60 seconds.
Consider how the Internet is re-shaping commercial production.
Television's Mad Men swept audiences off their feet for 8 years as Don Draper worked with his creative team and pitched their campaign ideas to clients. Throughout these two clips (below), we watch a glimpse of the creative process.
Don Draper - Creative Director
Peggy Olson - Copywriter
Michael Ginsberg - Copywriter
Stan Rizzo - Illustration
The Creative Team: Revealed
The Creative Companies Shaping the Market
Widen + Kennedy is the premiere advertising agency in Portland, OR
working with and for Nike as well as companies across the country.
TBWA/Chait/Day - Los Angeles Headquarters is home to the creative advertising team behind
companies such as Apple, Netflix, Disney, Johnson & Johnson, Energizer, Miller Lite, Nissan, Gatorade, etc.
MullenLowe has offices in Boston, Los Angeles, and Winston-Salem. ]
Their clients range from Google, Bose, Adidas, JetBlue, etc.
We're going to take a look at several commercials that many critics have argued are unethical in some way. I challenge you to consider ethics when evaluating these commercials. Think of who the company is targeting and how they're doing it.
Consider these specific points while viewing:
What happens when you watch a commerce, explained.
Pharmaceutical & Over-The-Counter Medications
Food and Drink
PROMPT: Think about all the things you have in your house that may be a specific brand. Consider the products, the brands, and why you buy them (or your parents do) every week, month of year. Even something as mundane as soap has been advertised to consumers, and we subconsciously put the item in our shopping cart every time we're at the store. But, why?
For example, think about soap.
While this product seems so simple, and we use it more times a day than we consciously think…we may not know why we use the soap we do. There are dozens and dozens (and maybe hundreds) of brands to chose from. However, we make a choice pretty effortlessly every week and drop one into our baskets.
Dove soap originally won its way into our homes through the promise of "cleaning and creaming skin" at the same time. However, now Dove has developed a rebranding campaign to move away from the conversation of turning our skin into smooth skin and rather has developed a discussion about simply loving the skin you're in. The company is jumping onto the #selflove band wagon of the 21st century, with what appears to be great success.
One last point: View the different commercials for soaps over the years and see if you relate to one commercial or brand over another.
CONSIDER: Think about the brands in your life that you buy without thinking twice. Consider the marketers--when you likely see ads without registering them. Make a list of the brands you have in your home and try to breakdown why you buy them. For some people it might just be that one brand is always on sale. It could be that simple, but the brand marketers are betting that it is not.